Bitumen

Black tar substance and paste the moisture in the insulation and construction of asphalt is used. Bitumen has a variety of types, each of which has a special application . Bitumen from oil derivatives are often produced in oil refineries .

The contents

1 Definition

2 Types of bitumen

3 Bitumen and bitumen

4 Bitumen blown

5 Bituminous mixtures or solutions

6 Bitter trinidad

7 Fat

8 Application

9 Bitumen profile

10 Bitumen characterization tests

11 depended queries

12 Sources

Definition

It is pitch black to dark brown hydrocarbon material in carbon disulfide and carbon tetrachloride [1] Completely dissolved. Bitumen is solid at ambient temperature . But with increasing temperature, and then turns into a pasty liquid. The important application of bitumen is due to the two important properties of this substance;

Water impermeability;

Adhesion [ 2 ]

Types of bitumen

Bitumen extracted from oil or minerals for, pure bitumen, which is formed according to the source, classified. Pure bitumen as well as for the desired properties for various applications to find, under other processes are different types of bitumen (including blown bitumen, bitumen solution, bitumen emulsion, bitumen membranes, etc.) Forming The day .

Bitumen and bitumen

Bitumen is usually obtained from the distillation of crude oil. Such tarry bitumen or tar called condensation. [3] Petroleum bitumen is a product of two stages of distillation of crude oil in distillation tower . In the first stage distillation, lightweight materials such as gasoline and propane from crude oil are separated. The process is at a pressure close to one atmosphere (unit) is performed. In the second phase the heavier compounds such as gasoline and kerosene outside. This process takes place at a pressure close to vacuum. Finally, a mixture of very fine solid particles called asphaltene remain in fluid grease-like substance called Maltn is immersed. [4 ]

But some of bitumen in nature and due to the gradual conversion of crude oil and the evaporation of volatiles in the passage of many years to come. Such tar, bitumen called [3] And its durability is more than oil tar . [ 5 ] Such bitumen may exist in pure form in nature (Pitch Lake) and lakes such as Lake bitumen tar Trinidad pa of America, [1] Or extracted from mines ( mineral tar ). [ 5 ] Bituminous with the name of Yuetteyt (Uintaite) Known. [Citation needed] ]

Bitumen blown

Bitumen blowing hot air blown from the pure pitch stage comes the final act of purification. In this process, hot air with a temperature 200 until the 300 ° C by a leaky pipe in the compartment containing bitumen is blown. The result of this process, the hydrogen atoms in the molecule of hydrocarbon bitumen, with oxygen in the air and water formation, operation polymerization occurs. [2] Blubber bitumen has a lower degree of penetration than pure bitumen, it has a higher degree of smoothness and a lower sensitivity to temperature variations . This type of pitch to make more sheets cover the roof, car batteries and Coating is used. [2] Symbol bit blown R Is. For example, bitumen 80/25 R Means blown bitumen with a degree of softness 80 And degree of infiltration 25 Is. [1 ]

Bituminous mixtures or solutions

Bitumen mixture to a mixture of bitumen and a suitable solvent (eg kerosene or gasoline) is called. The bitumen is liquid at ambient temperature or with a little heat turns to liquid. Bitumen asphalt mix in a variety of epithelial and Makadamy is used. [6] The pace or hardening of this type of bitumen depends on the type of solution . For example, because of the high evaporation rate of gasoline, bitumen dissolved in gasoline faster tighten. This bitumen, so-called bitter bitter (RC) Called. Qyrhayy also been solved in oil, bitumen Kndgyr (MC) Called and Qyrhayy the gas oil or fuel oil to be resolved, Bituminous long-setting (SC) Said. [2] Bitumen solution based on their viscosity grade are graded. [2 ]

Bitter trinidad

In Trinidad, the bitumen from the mouth Volcano Off Earn. The main Closed Bitumen Make Broken And From Under That Bitumen Make Removal Are That Open Bitumen Fluent Have been And Instead What That Removed Have been Make Full A. This Bitumen Has impurity ( Bodies Mineral And Root Plants) is. That Make the door temperature of 160 Degree water, and it’s clear that Trinidad refined bitumen (Trinidad Epure) Called and 38. 5% Mineral bodies, and 5% organic matter insoluble in CS2 And 56. 5% Bitumen in carbon sulfur dissolved. The object of the volcanic ash and clay, colloidal minerals they think so Beans Tiny the door That Play They are That This Fine and Degree Softness And Dripping That Make Top Have. Bitumen Trinidad Refined Make the door Oils Mineral Solved done Or With Vomit scrambled and apply the oil. This bitumen has a density 1. 4, the infiltrate 1. 4 until the 4 (in the heat 25 degrees), Softness 78 until the 84 And the Break 13 until the 14 . [7 ]

Fat

Qyrabh (bitumen) with a mixture of bitumen, water and emulsifier derived material. The amount of emulsifier is very low and about 0. 3 until the 0. 5 % By weight of bitumen. The amount of water consumed by this type of bitumen is about 30 until the 50 % By weight of bitumen. [1] Of emulsifier is usually an alkaline salt of organic acids or ammonium salt, which is charged bitumen particles. The bitumen particles repel each other due to inductive load and for the hundredth to one-thousandth mm spheres with a diameter of a float in the water. [2] The use of this type of pitch, reduce environmental pollution and because of oil or flammable solvents are not used, the risk of ignition during transportation of bitumen is reduced. [8] Of bitumen for asphalt used in humid environments or for insulation, which in this case must be re-added to the water content of about 65 Percent [ 1 ]

Application

Consultants in the field of road asphalt and insulation used. About 90 % Of bitumen production, in the field of road used and the cost of insulation, only 10 % Of bitumen consumption is accounted for. [9 ]

Insulation of bitumen is commonly used to insulate the roof and used the bathroom floor. Usually to stabilize the pitch, it is used along with packages that it is called Asphalt Shingles. Jute fiber reinforced role of bitumen and bitumen are fixed in place. As well as products such as cardboard bitumen or tar felt that with brand names such as insulation and … Presentation Are Also Users have similar crochet patterns . In order to prevent moisture penetration into the ground floor, the blockage or Makadm used. [1 ]

Bitumen profile

1 – Penetration testing penetration grade bitumen used for determination. In this test a standard needle under 100 grams for 5 seconds at 25 ° penetrates into the pitch. The amount of influence in terms of tenths of a millimeter penetration is called. The low penetration grade bitumen is harder than it is. [1 ]

Viscosity: What is the psychological pitch shows more solid properties. It is clear that at higher temperatures is less than psychological. This characteristic of bitumen with Bolt Fyvrl C or kinematic methods to be measured. [1 ]

Ignition temperature: the temperature at which ignition if bitumen to reach that temperature, gases rising from the approaching flames, ignited and the flame there. The maximum temperature that can be heated bitumen in the workshop is limited to the degree of combustion. [1 ]

4 – Weight loss: weight loss of bitumen at high temperatures, evaporation of part of the oil and oil combinations thereof. This characteristic is also important properties of bitumen . Weight loss bitumen in an oven at 163 ° C and the temperature for 5 hours (approximate conditions of batch asphalt) is measured. [1 ]

5 – Or gum plasticity: if a sample of bitumen with a surface area of 1 square centimeter at a rate of 5 cm / min draw, increasing the amount of property before tearing a bit of bitumen say. [1 ]

6 – Purity: carbon and sulfur chloride, carbon tetrachloride know bitumen solvent. If a sample of bitumen in each of these materials to solve, impurities that remain, and since the Purity Bitumen Make Can determination We. Degree Purity Phrase Is From : ( weight Sample Bitumen ) ÷ [( weight Impurities) – (Weight Bitumen )] [ 1 ]

7 – Degree of softness: softness degree temperature at which the bitumen temperature, bitumen of solid state mental state comes in. The higher the degree of softness of the bitumen, the lower the sensitivity to temperature variations . The soft bitumen is typically about 60 to 70. [1 ]