Crude oil:

Kindle concentrated liquid crude oil and garlic to brown or dark green or black in the upper layers of the Earth’s crust Found Is. Oil Contains Blended Complex From Hydrocarbons Various Is .

In the mid-nineteenth century with the development of drilling technology and oil refining and distillation technology in the late nineteenth century and its use in cases of non-fuel marvelous mutants were created. As today’s petrochemical industry has a fundamental and fundamental role in solving the general needs of society. .

Most scientists originate from the formation of oil as plants and organic organisms Available the door Oceans primitive Know .

The remaining animals and plants that lived millions of years ago in the marine environment over millions of years by the split of mud and sediments buried under high pressure and temperature, lack of oxygen and a long time convert oil and if any of these conditions with suitable reservoir rock, oil is collected in large quantities in oil reservoirs .

Crude oil and the solid oils (petroleum bitumen) and liquid can be seen. Sometimes all forms of hydrocarbon oil Also Said Is. If Oil the door local Total To make It Location “The pond Petroleum » Say. From Total Several Pond Petroleum One ” Field Petroleum » The result Is. Stone Porous Includes Oil, ” Stone Tank » Say .

Crude oil is usually based on two specific gravity criteria And Level Sulfur The package is divided. Oil with a specific gravity, viscosity And Density Lower have Oil Style And Oil on That Weight Special Viscosity And Density Higher have Oil Heavy Called Are. Oil on That Sulfur They are fewer Is Also Oil Sweet And Oils Has Sulfur More Oil sour Called The disjointed. Extraction, transportation and refining of light, sweet simpler and less costly and more of the products such as gasoline, naphtha, kerosene And Fuels Jet Picked up From Oil White And Diesel by High quality Make Can be From They To Hand Bring To This the reason This Kind of Oils More Favorite hair refineries, which have a higher price .

Raw or processed oil are not very useful, and if the application does not come out of the ground. The sweet oil (with low viscosity and low sulfur) for untreated Equipment used was driven by steam, gases and lighter than other solutions usually gathered inside the fuel tank, causing it was a blast. Apart from the above for use oil to produce other products such as plastics, foams and crude oil refining certainly should be. products The refinery is light in heavy order, respectively :

liquid gas (LPG)


NAFTA Shear That Among Gasoline And Oil White Put Is And Specification That hybrid From This Two Is

Kerosene And Fuels Jet Related To That

Gasoline (Gas oil) and To In a way Kelly Fuels Diesel

Fuel oil Famous To Mazut Or Oil Black

Petroleum oils

Paraffin wax


Petroleum coke



Pitch black, pasty substance the shape That the door Insulation Moisture And Build Asphalt Application There. Bitumen types of variety has it That Any One From types of That Has Application Is certain. Bitumen is a derivative of oil .

Bituminous hydrocarbon material Is To Color Black until the Brown Dark That the door Sulfide Carbon And Tetrachloride Carbon totally Solved Is. Bitumen the door temperature of Environment, Solid Is. But With Increase Temperature To state of Paste Comes And So From That Liquid Is. Application Important Bitumen To The reason for the existence of two important properties of the substance;

* Water impermeability

* Adhesion

Bitumen is usually distilled Oil Raw To Hand Comes. Such Thickness Bitumen Petroleum Or Bitumen Distillation Called Is. Bitumen Petroleum the product Two the level Distillation Oil Raw the door Tower Distillation Is. the door the level First Distillation, Materials Style As Gasoline And Propane From Oil Raw Separate Are. This Process the door Pressure Close to an atmosphere ( unit ) Do Is. the door the level Second Also Compounds Heavy As Gasoline And Oil White Out Are. This Process the door Pressure Close To Vacuum the face Accepts. the door Ultimately The mixture From Particle Solid Very Tiny To name Asphaltening rest Stay That the door a matter Fluid Grease-like To I have not Maltn Submerged Is .

But some of bitumen in nature and due to the gradual conversion of crude oil and the evaporation of volatiles in the passage of many years to come. Such tar, bitumen called bitumen oil is more durable. Such bitumen may exist in pure form in nature (bitumen lake) such as Lake bitumen PA Iran And Lake Bitumen Thirinidad America Or From mines Extraction To be .

Oil tars

Petroleum bitumen, bitumen solid and semisolid directly from the distillation of crude oil or other additional operations, such as blowing air to come. Surviving residues of petroleum bitumen or heavy crude oil distillation. The amount of bitumen crude oil varies from zero to more than half of that . In addition, bitumen obtained from different sources can have many differences. So refineries producing bitumen crude oil have to be chosen carefully to ensure the quality of bitumen .

Direct Pit Extraction of Crude Oil

Distillation is a major process in petroleum refining . The first stage of distillation under atmospheric pressure and usually involves heating the crude oil to a temperature of about 650 until the 800 Fahrenheit, and then injected into a separation column . Thereby cutting lighter for the top of the tower and tar residues known as atmospheric residue. This is the first step in the entire filtration process . Many crude oils contain high percentages of cuts with a high boiling point which can not be distilled in an atmospheric distillation unit. To isolate the cutting and preparation of bitumen with the desired characteristics of a second separating tower that works in vacuum conditions used .

Bitumen extraction process remains as the place is called. Asphalt manufacturing process by distillation in a vacuum but very effective permeability properties of bitumen to leave. The origin of the crude oil used has a significant influence on the physical properties of bitumen extracted .

author: Iman Noei

- Enovathemes